RFID Radio Frequency Identification

What are the types of RFID systems?

There are three main types of RFID systems: low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF). Microwave RFID is also available. Frequencies vary greatly by country and region.

Low-frequency RFID systems. These range from 30 KHzto 500 KHz, though the typical frequency is 125 KHz. LF RFID has short transmission ranges, generally anywhere from a few inches to less than six feet.

High-frequency RFID system These range from 3 MHzto 30 MHz, with the typical HF frequency being 13.56 MHz. The standard range is anywhere from a few inches to several feet.

UHF RFID systems. These range from 300 MHz to 960 MHz, with the typical frequency of 433 MHz and can generally be read from 25-plus feet away.

Microwave RFID systems. These run at 2.45 Ghzand can be read from 30-plus feet away.

The frequency used will depend on the RFID application, with actual obtained distances sometimes varying from what is expected. For example, when the U.S. State Department announced it would issue electronic passports enabled with an RFID chip, it said the chips would only be able to be read from approximately 4 inches away. However, the State Department soon received evidence that RFID readers could skim the information from the RFID tags from much farther than 4 inches — sometimes upward of 33 feet away.



RFID Radio Frequency Identification


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